Livestock Keepers’ Rights on the roll?

lk landscape comp
Will indigenous and local livestock keepers conserving precious biodiversity ever be heard and given the rights that they have under existing international legal frameworks? Governments are ignoring the generations of expertise owned by livestock keepers at their own peril – as is evidenced by Rajasthan’s decision to put a ban on export of camels from the state. As this Raika herder testifies, this will not have the desired effect of saving the camel, but lead to breeders abandoning the animal because of lack of income. See previous blog at

There appear to be good news for the large number of Civil Society organisations that support “Livestock Keepers’ Rights“, a bundle of rights that would create a more level playing field between small-scale biodiversity conserving livestock keepers and the large-scale industrial livestock producers.

I have just returned from a panel discussion on Livestock Keepers’ Rights held at India’s National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR) in Karnal. It took place at the sidelines of the annual Breed Saviour Awards function  and at the initiative of the institute’s recently appointed director, Dr. Arjava Sharma and one of its well-known scientists, Dr. D. K. Sadana. The panelists included spokespeople for various groups advocating for more inclusive and participatory livestock policies, such as the Rainfed Livestock Network, LIFE Network, SEVA, Kasargode cattle breeders, as well as a livestock expert from Pakistan.

Apparently there is a desire in the government to make a move on Livestock Keepers’ Rights, unfortunately taking India’s Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers’ Rights Act, 2001 as a model and suggesting to just replace the word plant with animal. However, the strong consensus of the panelists and the audience was that this would not at all serve the purpose and not do justice to the complexity of the task. Instead an extensive dialogue, especially with livestock keepers, is necessary to arrive at a useful outcome.

One of the points agreed upon was the need for establishing strong breeders’ associations and that rights must go along with responsibilities.  A good deal of discussion centered on the right of livestock keepers to breed and to make breeding decisions. Some scientists were of the opinion that this could lead to the continuation of indiscriminate cross-breeding and might further threaten indigenous breeds. Others noted that livestock keepers can not be expected to keep threatened breeds if it was not economically worthwhile; in such cases the government would need to make payments if it wanted the breeds to be preserved.

Much doubt was also raised about the wisdom of government breeding policies which have heavily promoted cross-breeding of indigenous breeds and continue to do so.  According to Dr. A.E. Nivsarkar, a former director of NBAGR and currently with the National Dairy Development Board, 60 years of government promoted and supported cross-breeding has had no lasting impact (except in the creation of mongrels with reproductive problems) and wet averages have plateaued out at 6 liters among cross-breds, while the wet averages of indigenous breeds have slowly improved. He was of the opinion – shared by many – that if the same attention had been given to improve indigenous cattle through selective breeding, the impact would have been been much better for the national economy. This seemed to be confirmed by the cattle breeder from Pakistan who proudly talked about his prize winning Sahiwal cow with daily yields of more than 39 kg.

An eye-opening input was made by the participants from Kerala, Dr. Jayan of the Vechur Conservation Trust and Mr. Lal of the Kasargod Conservation Centre who related how the state’s Livestock Improvement Act of 1961 had prohibited the use and keeping of bulls of the dwarf Vechur cattle breed punishing it with one month in jail and a Rs 500 fine. Indigenous bulls were  systematically scouted out and castrated by force. This was against the backdrop of an Indo-Swiss  dairy development project which promoted cross-breeding with exotics. Now, 50 years later, the Vechur cattle – which was rescued against all odds by the well-known efforts of Prof. Sosamma Iype and her students – has turned into a highly treasured and expensive breed whose milk sells at a minimum of three times the price of the milk from cross-bred cows and which is ideally suited because of its minute size for the small land holdings in densely populated Kerala.

Despite the government efforts focusing on cattle, India’s story is one of buffaloisation, as was described by Dr. R. K. Sethi, former director of India’s Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes. This species is now the main provider of milk in the country and largely responsible for India’s number one rank as beef exporter (beef including buffalo meat). This development appears to be largely due to livestock keepers taking advantage of marketing opportunities as well as government pricing policies rewarding the high fat content of buffalo milk.

Much remains to be analysed and discussed but it is a highly positive sign that India – as home of the largest population of small-scale livestock keepers – has opened the discussion on Livestock Keepers’ Rights! Hopefully other countries will follow and thereby move their livestock sector towards a more sustainable trend.



2 Replies to “Livestock Keepers’ Rights on the roll?”

  1. Good to see Ilse’s well documented account of Breed Savior Awards 2013 and a Seminar on Livestock Keeper’s Rights at NBAGR Karnal India. It was a wonderful opportunity for me and my colleagues from Pakistan to attend these activities at NBAGR Karnal and to contribute to the cause of conserving indigenous livestock wealth in India and Pakistan by sharing experiences of each side and learning to frame up future strategies to enhance the role of small holder’s engaged in keeping the local animal genetic treasures of their respective homelands.

    This is particularly important in the wake of an onslaught of corporate genetics that has already been playing a havoc to indigenous livestock breeds especially the dairy breeds of cattle through producing big markets for the export and introduction of HF and Jersey germplasm in India, Pakistan and elsewhere. The visit of Pakistani delegation seems to have created a strong hype for the cause of conserving the indigenous dairy wealth in both countries. This was quite evident from the proceeding tour of our delegation to Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Jallandhar and Amritsar. The Interactive Seminar on Sahiwal breed conservation at Chandigarh followed by a meeting with the honorable chief Minister of Punjab Parkash Singh Badal were milestone events towards strengthening this cause. The Chandigarh Seminar ended up with the inception of SAHIWAL BREEDER’S ASSOCIATION in India in line with Pakistani precedent which attracted nationwide publicity in the press. The institution of this Association was also ratified quickly enough by the Chief Minister Punjab the very next day. The role and services of Professor P.K. Uppal deserve a special appreciation to achieve these outcomes. During a meeting with Punjab Minister for Animal Husbandry, he also reiterated his resolve to do whatever was possible to further the objectives of recent and future interactions of experts breeders and scientists of Pakistani and Indian Punjab. I also look forward to working with Animal Cultures to extend their activities as widely as possible both in Pakistan and India

    Dr. Ahmad Ali
    Associate Professor of Animal Genetics
    Department of Bioscience
    COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Sahiwal

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